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Thursday, 15 May 2014 05:58

Economy Protection

Economy Protection
  The protection of infant industries, prevention of dumping, protection of domestic employment and the need for self-sufficiency offers the need for market or economy protection. The comparative advantage is a system that puts into accounts the different productivity levels and scarce resources, (Alvin, 2010). The scarce resources include the capital, labor and land.  The provision of the DOHA agreement and Uruguay round assure the definition of the different tasks and quality requirements, (Garcia, 2010). The countries can easily trade their production with the respective products. The countries can easily benefit through the utilization of the scarce resources. 
 Purpose of paper
The editorial offers insight on the probable ways for the administration of states economy or comparative advantage.  The assessment of the Uruguay Round or the Doha Development Agenda offers insight on different types of changes. 
Overview of paper
The research will be based on the assessment of the Uruguay Round or the Doha Development Agenda. The assessment will assess their impact on agricultural subsidies. The assessment of the agricultural subsidies findings will be assessed
DOHA agreement and Uruguay round have enabled states competitive advantage.
Case Summary
 The case identifies the different forms of conflict and ways applied to control the conflicts. The agricultural subsidy case analysis acknowledges the conflict that was within the USA and Japan over Apples production. The other conflict is with USA and EU over the production of the Bananas. The DOHA Development agenda has focused on the control of the conflict. DOHA has provided rules on the placement of the tariffs and Quotas, (Garcia, 2010). This has enabled the control of the market access for the different countries. DOHA has engaged in the placement of the export subsidies, (Alvin, 2010). This has been based on the encouragement of specific countries to produce a product. The production or direct subsidies have been considered harmful for the markets. The direct subsidies increase the chances of over production. The over-production of products increases dumping opportunities for the different countries. 
The article supports the provision of the indirect support for the production of products for the markets. The indirect support for the development and research deals with the construction and recognition of the permissible and desirable requirements, (Brewer, 2010).  The DOHA development agenda has increased the limitation of the country’s agriculture through the pushing of the limits for the government practices that bock their access to the markets and high income countries.  DOHA has been able to Block countries access to the high income countries. 
 Uruguay Round and the Doha Development
 The significance of Uruguay Round and the Doha Development has been on domestic support, market access and export subsidies changes, (Brewer, 2010). The agricultural subsidies are the most effective mechanisms for the acceleration of the growth in the agricultural sectors.  The agricultural subsidies have been considered the tools that allow the development of the countries in maintaining the supremacy, (Jeremiah, 2010).  The controversies of the subsidies have been based on the unfair advantage that has been offered to the farmers in the development of the countries that sell the goods at the low prices. The countries in the South have had enough resources for the subsidizing of the farmers in the similar fashion. The USA has proposed the ban on the different types of subsidies. The US and EU have offered large supports to the international markets. The DOHA development has been based on offering the blueprint for the cutting of tariffs, reduction of the agricultural subsidies and the increase of flexibilities in the market analysis and impact assessment, (Alvin, 2010).   The agendas have allowed the market access for the different countries. The tariffs for the organization have been cut in accordance to the set formula of steep cuts on the high tariffs. The Uruguay round allowed the changes in the agricultural subsidies through the assessment of the domestic support, market access and export subsidies changes. 
The agenda and Uruguay have offered the stipulation for the limit of the current tariffs in agriculture. This has been based on providing rules on market access.  The Uruguay round impacted the access by exempting the least developed countries from the tariffs.  The high tariffs offer high cuts. This means that the volumes range from 50% to 73 %. The management is subject to the minimum average for the development of the countries. 33.3% to 48 % of the students engage in the development of the tasks for the organization.   The market access focuses on the assessment of the sensitive products, flexibilities and contingencies.  
The export subsidies impact has been on the assessment of the sensitive state of the product in the markets.  The developed countries were mandated to reduce the export subsidies to 36%, in value, or 21%, in volume, (Brewer, 2010). This allows the determination of the cuts for the tariffs for the organization. The sensitive products are offered the cut of 1/3 or ½ or 2/3 from the normal cut. The quantity that is allowed for the product is at the lower quota.  The assessment focuses on the assessment of the applied tariffs that are lower than the bound tariffs. The cuts are required to be made legal with the bound rates. The tariffs have been charged lower than what was anticipated for the legal bound rates. The bound tariffs will be based on the assessment of the 100%. The other impact is where the tariffs, safeguards and tariffs quotas are assessed about the country’s status.  The least developed countries could have no cuts on the agricultural products. This has made the developing countries make small cuts and low flexibilities for the vulnerable, small and developed economies. 
DOHA and Uruguay Round have allowed the support of the farmer and the agriculture. The support for the prices and earnings allow the accordance for the product to be eliminated. The agendas have impacted the export competition, (Brewer, 2010).   For example, the US was asked by the EU and other developing countries to offer generous reduction to the tariffs that distort the trade in the domestic support culture, (Garcia, 2010).  The import sensitive products would be based on the assessment of the exemption of cuts. The export subsidies have been eliminated about the long development of the countries. The revision of the provisions for the insurance, guarantees and export credits have allowed the offering of revised provisions.
Agricultural Subsidies for 2007
                                                                (US$)                 As a Percent of Farm Receipts                                                                                                
European Union                    134318000000                                         26
Japan                                                35230000000                                         45
United States                                   32663000000                                         10
Canada                                                 7001000000                                                     18
Australia                                   1827000000                                                          6
 The table indicates that the European Union has the highest absolute advantage as compared to the other states.  The state of Japan has a higher comparative advantage than the EU, but little revenue as compared to EU.  The United States had sales of 32663 million while its farm receipts were only ten percent. The state of Canada had sales of 7001 million with 18 percent as the farm receipts, (Alvin, 2010).  Canada had a higher percentage of farm receipts than the USA.  The state of Australia had the lowest sales for the agricultural products. Australia recorded the sales for 1827 million with six percent of the farm receipts. 
The comparative advantage is considered the ability of the country or the state to produce a good or the service that is at a low opportunity coast as compared to the firms or individuals. The comparative advantage allows the provision of the company to sell the services and goods at the low prices that the competitors, (Garcia, 2010). This allows the realization of the string sales margin for the country. The absolute advantage for the countries is based on the proficiency of the services and goods to be produced at a low cost per unit.  The absolute advantage offers the country the ability to produce a lot of goods as compared to another country. This is within the same timeframe. 
In conclusion, DOHA agreement and Uruguay round have enabled states competitive advantage.  The research was based on the assessment of the latest round for the trade negotiations that are among the WTO membership. The   DOHA agreement and Uruguay round allowed the reforms for the international trading systems. The round was based on the improvement of the trading prospects for the developed countries.   The research offered the following insight.  The protection of infant industries, prevention of dumping, protection of domestic employment and the need for self-sufficiency are the main causes for the protection of states economies. 
Alvin, E. (2010). Market Access through spring Tariffs: Scottish Journal on Political financial system, 57, 3, 272-289 
Brewer, T. (2010). Trade Policies and temperature Change Policies: A Rapidly increase for Joint Agenda. Journal on World Economy, 33, 6, 799-809 
Garcia, R. (2010). How effectual are WTO Disciplines for household Support and marketplace admission for Agriculture: Journal on World Economy, 33, 11, 214- 230 
Jeremiah, L. (2010). Government-Led Export endorsement in glow of Distributional equality in the Global trade System: Journal on Economic Issues, 44, 4, 877-894 

Paul Krugman (1987). "Is Free Trade Passé?"

     According to Paul Krugman, comparative theory can be simplified to mean countries trade to maximize their differences.  Economies are believed to be characterized by constant returns to scale and perfect competition.  This means that is triggered by differences in technology, tastes, and factors/resources endowment.  Ricardian theory holds that technological differences are the main cause of trade while the Heckscher-Ohnlin-Samuelson model holds that different in resources endowment is what triggers international trade. These traditional trade theories are unable to explain the existence of different production structure in a similar region.  They also implied that trade should lead to conflict between factors of production and countries with complimentary endowments are best candidates to the formation of trading blocs.    However, these theories failed to address some trade phenomenon experience post war such as trade among similarly endow countries, intra-industry trade, and the formation of trading blocs.  

Krugman outlines the existence of other nature advantages such as to the traditional forces (factor, and technology.  He argues that increasing returns could be a reason for trade between seemingly similar countries is not well understood.  According to Krugman theory, countries can achieve competitive advantage through economies of scale, where each firm produces fewer varieties of goods, but at much larger scale, driving down the cost of production.  Therefore, firms in each country can produce similar products but with different characteristics (differentiation) at much larger scale (with lower cost).  These products are similar but not direct substitutes.  Variety tastes among consumers drive intra-industry trade.  Krugman argues that trade driven by economies of scales is fundamental in the world economy, and imperfect competition is also important.  His theory of increased returns and imperfection completion did not undermine the competitive advantage held by traditional theories, but rather complimented the position.  In order to explain the phenomenon of intra-industry trade, the theory removes the two main orthodox assumptions of perfect competition and constant returns to scale and has emphasized imperfect competition and increasing returns to scale.  With increasing returns, a firm’s marginal cost is lower than the average cost. If the firm faces perfectly competitive market, it must set its product prices to marginal cost, and it will incur losses.  Thus increasing returns to scale are incompatible with perfect competition and are likely to produce natural monopoly. In a world with free trade, a product is, therefore, likely to be monopolized by a single producer in one country, and trade will occur as a result of specialization caused by increasing returns to scale.

Krugman views of international trade holds that trade is to a certain degree driven by economies of scale. This new perspective outlines two main objections/ideas to free trade.   The first idea is the strategic trade policy and the second idea is that government policies should favor industries that yield externalities.    In a state where there are increasing returns and imperfect competition, some firms may be able earn higher returns than the opportunity costs of the resources.   Such a firm would discourage the entry of another firm into the same market.  Therefore, countries ca n boosts their income at the expense of others by promoting firms that are able to earn excess return sin local market.   Governs can use interventions such as subsidies and import restrictions, under the right circumstances to protect local firms from the competition from foreign firms.  However, trade policy argument has disadvantages in that it can be used by governments to increase or raise the welfare of its citizens at the expense of another country.

The argument for free trade is usually based on comparative advantage theory.  Krugman argues that is desirable to deviate from free trade to encourage activities that yield positive external economies.  This conception that protection can be beneficial when an industry generates external economies is part of convectional theory of trade policy.   The theory holds that governments can intervene to promote external benefits by exploiting external economies.    In free trade, positive internalities originate from the inability of innovative firms to appropriate the knowledge they create.  This problem is common among industries that are adopting technologies at a faster rate.   Traditional trade theories rely on perfect completion, which does not recognize externalities from incomplete appropriability.   This is because it is not possible to identify the source of externalities spillovers.   Firms can take advantage of these spillovers and appropriability to adopt new technologies and consequently improve their efficiency and reduce their cost of production. Therefore, traditional theories view external economies in abstract.   Firms can use research and design to gain external economies thereby destabilizing the theory of a perfect market.  Governs can introduce interventions or policy that target specific sectors.  Such a move would trigger the production in the sector, which may affect other countries adversely.  However, externalities are boundless countries can utilize externalities to disadvantages other especially so when the externalities are restricted at a national level.  

           However, govern interventions or policies as a force in the new trade theory faces objection and criticism.  First, there are questions on whether governments can be able to formulate useful policies or interventions given the existence of imperfect markets.  Secondly, there is room for exploitation of government interventions by rent-seeking firms. Third, it is believed that general equilibrium considerations will increase the difficulty of formulating intervention policies.   Most economic policies face uncertainty. It is not possible to predict how firms will respond to government interventions.  The success of these interventions greatly depends on collaboration and cooperation from the targeted firms.  Therefore, the use of externalities faces several empirical difficulties.   Benefits of government interventions may be eroded by the entry of other firms.  For example, in strategic trade policy, which aims at securing excess returns within local firms, it is possible that target market can support more than one firm.  Therefore, entry of other firms will ultimately be unavoidable thereby creating an oligopoly.  Therefore, subsidies may ultimately achieve the desired results.  Similarly, policies aimed at promoting external economies may fail.  This is mainly due to the fact that it is not possible to control all factors.   Entry of new factors will ultimately reduce the extent to which competition for external economies represents a source of international conflict.  In addition, there is the need to balance between sourcing revenue and protecting local firms.  Therefore, government works within restrictive intervention policies, which do more harm than good. Therefore, a government should clearly understand any intervention policy and also have a thorough knowledge of the industry before formulating any intervention policies.

The challenges of formulating interventions that work perfectly in imperfect markets are a challenge.   Therefore, the potential gain of interventions may be outweighed by uncertainty of these policies, entry that dissipate gains, and by general equilibrium.  Therefore, interventionist policies are complicated to apply.


Paul Krugman (1987). "Is Free Trade Passé?" retrieved from

Integrated Unit Plan:Meeting The Various Needs Of Learners

Subject: Taking care of the environment

Grade/Topic: Science for Preschool level on Environment

Lesson Plan 1: Topic: looking at leaves and objects

Needs of students with disabilities

As a teacher, I have to have the expertise on acuity, vision, visual and ocular-motor fields. I need to understand various teaching strategies for the visually impaired children and the effects that blindness has on children classroom learning, performance and development (Smith and Simpson 2001). In order to assist blind children, I will introduce equipments and modify the environment so as to maximize children performance. I will need support from occupational therapies for the functional abilities of the child. I will implement activities that address sensory systems, movement position a visual perceptual (Wolffe, 1999).

 This activity of examining shapes of objects in the environment will be made individualized for blind and deaf children. Communicating with blind-deaf children can be through the use of signs language, Braille, Tadoma and communication board. I will integrate collaborative instructions in the casual setting provide them with a stimulatory environment where they can gain concrete experiences. The blind children will use their sense of touch to find out the shape of various objects. A stimulatory approach will be the best practice for teaching deaf and blind children. This approach involves the use of direct observation, audiology assessment, ecology assessment, parent involvement, direct observation and assessment of the functional visual and communication among other aspects. The learning environment has to be free from distractions so as to help children with low concentration level and that b suffering from autism (Wagner, 2001).

 This will be done through providing a quiet setting, provide special lighting, use of headphones to reduce external distractions and the use of adaptive equipments and assistive devices. Assessment accommodation will generally focus on whether have understood the concrete materials or can orally state the shape of objects without them having to write the shapes (Mensa for kids, 2011). The oral response will be recorder. Students facing communication challenges such as the deaf will be given assistive technologies like the speech to text technology and other adaptive equipments and assistive devices to help them.

 Gifted children

The young gifted, talented and exceptional children will be provided with a variety of activities that are challenging which are essential to provide them with a stimulating environment. They can, for example, be required to explain the dimension of objects and encouraged to talk and think about parts and shapes that make up an object. For example, a log of tree would have a circle shape at the top and square share in the middle.

 The below-level children

This group comprised of children facing various difficulties in learning such as inability to read. They will be assisted through reading the items of the test loudly. The text-to- speech technology will be used to communicate test items and give directions. I will provide those with sight difficulties large print formats and braille. In focusing on the exercises, I will encourage students to use pointers, positioning tools and blank cards so as to enhance their visual attention (Building our Future, 2010). The on level students will be assisted by giving them extra examples of practices and encouraging them to keep on working.

Lesson Plan 2; Smell flowers

Student’s needs

For this exercise, students with difficulty in recalling and answering questions will be assisted. Those with difficulty writing down or drawing an object of what they smell in their own handwriting will be assisted through providing them with increased space to draw and answer questions. I will also accommodate such students by letting them respond orally to the smells. The diversity of children will also be accommodated by letting them give responses to an interpreter when they lack the English definition of smells or object’s smells. I will give partial credit to responses questions that are not fully correct for students with disabilities and experience difficulty in maintaining attention during the test. The below-level students will be assisted during this exercise by encouraging them to use manipulative or required to complete uncompleted sentences. In will also provide them with shapes and diagrams of fruits to help them recall the smells. I will use open ended questions to guide them to the right answers. I will guide them in understanding the scientific terminologies used in the class discussions. For tests, they can retake the exam and provide them with credit for improvement (Shally, 2007).

For those students who work slowly, I will give them additional time to complete the tasks assigned to them. They can take short breaks during the class activity. I will also consult with parents to know whether their kids can be affected by smells. For those with attention and concentration problems, I will ask them few questions yet ensure that the skill and connect of exercise are tested. I will remind them on previous day activities and ensure that the answers provided are correct (Ontario Ministry of education, 2006).

Lesson Plan 3: Sounds in the environment

Meeting the various needs of learners

For the special education students with difficulty in concentrating, they will be given time or assigned in a small group to write their poems (Tabors, 2008). They will be provided with a study closure to undertake their tests especially in writing activities. Those with physical impairment that impact on their hearing will be provided with the needed equipments and adaptive techniques (Sherer, Pierce, Parades et al, 2001).

They will be provided with technologies for writing explanations on answers and essays. Such technologies include digital voice recorder, word processor and cassette tape recorder that they will record their answers (Genesee, Johanne and Crago, 2004). Students will be encouraged to participate in role play that comprises of dance, music, crafts and fine arts representing the diverse cultures of students. In drawing the s shapes of animals. Students will use paints, crayons and papers as well as a wide range of color to represent the skin colors of the animals (Curriculum support 2009).

The below level and gifted children will be assisted by various ICT resources and tools so as to meet their unique needs and support learning. Such as the use of the computer to produce animal sounds and to read aloud a story. Words can be highlighted in Bold and large fond as they are being read. Children will further use the computer to view the graphic and visual images of animals. The DVDs and CDs will help them investigate the research on animals in the planet.


Genesee, F, Johanne P and Crago B (2004) Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Baltimore, Brookes Publishing Co.

Tabors, P (2008). One Child, Two Languages: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators of Children Learning English as a Second Language. 2nd ed. Brookes Publishing Co.

Curriculum support (2009) parents count too; helping children with objects and shapes. Retrieved from


On September 15th 2013

Ontario Ministry of education (2006) the kindergarten program. Retrieved from On September 15th 2013

Mensa for kids (2011) Kindergarten Lesson Plan —— Shapes. Retrieved from On September 15TH 2013

Wolffe, K (1999). Skills for success: a career education handbook for children and adolescents with visual impairments. New York, NY

Wagner, S (2001) Inclusive programming for students with Autism/Asperger’s Syndrome. Future Horizons, Inc.

Building our Future (2010) Educating Students. In Autism Society of America.

Shally, C (2007) since we’re friends: An Autism picture book. Centeron, AR: Awaken Specialty Press.

Smith M, and R Simpson (2001) Effective practices for students with Asperger syndrome," in Focus on Exceptional Children 34

Sherer, M., Pierce, K, Parades Kisacky, I (2001) Enhancing conversation skills in children with autism via video technology 25, 140-158.

Sunday, 30 March 2014 03:07



1. a. 5.4 yoctometers per femtosecond

5.4 E-15nm /10E-15 seconds

b. 5.4E-12/10E-15

2. 0.4 nanometer.



3. On the basis of etymology, there is no difference between ethics and morality.   However, morality constitutes behaviors and beliefs about what is good and wrong while ethics is the moral philosophy or reasoning.  Morality encompasses actions and beliefs while ethics is the philosophical reflection on morals and practices.   Ethics is about thinking about moral actions and beliefs.  Some of the ethical dilemmas such as euthanasia and assisted suicide are based on the moral of doing what is “right.”

4. Human experiments involve the use of human beings as experimental subjects.  An experiment subject refers to an individual who is observed or experimented with by an investigator.   All researches using human subjects must be reviewed and approved by the committee on the use of humans as experiment subjects (COUHES).  

5. Stem cells are cells with both self-renewal and differentiation potentials i.e. undergoing symmetric or asymmetric divisions through which the stem population is maintained.  They can differentiate into more than one cell lineage and can perpetuate tissues upon transplantation.  There are two main types of stem cells (embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells).  Based on their ability to differentiate, stem cells can be classified into totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, oligopotent and unipotent stem cells.  The major ethical issue surrounding the use of stem cells in research emanate from the derivation and pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos.  The ethical dilemma is based on either to respect human life or prevent/alleviate human suffering.   There are questions on whether preimplantation embryos have moral standing equal to living humans.

6. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst, and primordial germ cells from a post-implantation embryo. One of the major differences between embryonic stem cells and somatic cells is their different abilities in the number and type of differentiated cells type they can become.  Embryonic cells can become all cell types of the body while somatic cells are believed to be limited to differentiating into different cell types of their tissue of origin.  

7. Induced pluripotent stem cells are genetically altered adult stem cells that are induced in a laboratory to take characteristics of embryonic stem cells.  

8. Cell differentiation is the process through which young cells matures and specialize into distinct form and function.  It’s the maturity process of cells where cells assume specific functions in the body.

9. DNA molecules pass through the nucleus membrane of a cell.  Nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, and so on, through the nuclear membrane is a fundamental process for the metabolism of cells.  Transport of plasmid DNA through the nuclear pores has been implicated in numerous studies, particularly when the plasmids contain specific sequences recognized by the host cell transcription factor.  DNA can pass through the nucleus membrane through the nuclear pores.  Nuclear pores are embedded on the surface of nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm (Cooper Gm, 2000).  

DNA can also enter into the nucleus through the association of DNA with the nuclear materials on the breakdown of the nuclear envelope during mitosis (Misra, 2011).  


Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. The Nuclear Envelope and Traffic between the Nucleus and Cytoplasm. Available from:

Sunday, 30 March 2014 02:32

Bureaucratic Organization

Bureaucratic Organization

1-The Distribution of Power


Max Weber indicates that communities are organized in which goods, material and symbolic, intangible and tangibles are distributed. The distribution of these resources involves power and is always unequal. The formation of parties, status groups and classes in the society is determined by power distribution in the community. The social order, political/ legal order and economic order are as a result of status groups (Weber, 2010).


I agree with the main argument of the theorists that capital and money do play a major in determining the power of distribution. He clearly discusses how economic status does shape classes. His theory is applicable in modern day because the rich few have control and power over the resources and determine the economic development of a country. This means that class status and social power are mainly determined by economic interests. The economic interests in the modern world are monopolized, and this causes a huge gap between the poor and rich. I also support Weber’s argument the unequal distribution of resources cause conflicts between the workers and business owners since they cannot come to an agreement on the provision of a suitable work environment (Calhoun, Gerteis, Moody, et al,2012).


Max Weber provides three kinds of power in a community. He first is the legal or bureaucratic power; the second is charismatic power, and third is the traditional power. He mentions that bureaucratic organization comprises of the following features; the organization is characterized by a high level of specialization and division of the power, hierarchy of authority, impersonal and formal relations among members, and follows the principle of consistency, objectivity and rationality (DesforEdles and Scott 2009).


The bureaucratic organization as defined by Max Weber is a highly rigid type of organization that does not place importance on human relations. This type of organization can hardly be identified in the present world because it places too much emphasis on rules and regulations which are inflexible and rigid. Democratic nations around the world do not use this form of leadership.


DesforEdles Land Scott A (2009). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era, 2nd Edition. Pine Forge Press. Weber Max (2010) "Class, Status, and Party". Retrieved from
On September 30th 2013.
Calhoun C, Gerteis J, Moody J et al (2012) classical sociological theory. John Wiley and sons

Sunday, 30 March 2014 02:28

Conflict Resolution

Conflict Resolution


Mrs. Vet and Mrs. New are teachers with different backgrounds, in terms of experience and the socio-economic status of the schools in which they have taught. Mrs. New has transferred to an urban school at which Mrs. Vet Teaches. The conflict regarding whether or not the curriculum should undergo a redesign is based on the performance of the previous year. While Mrs. Vet holds that the average of 76th percentile attained the previous is high enough, hence no need for a curriculum redesign. However, Mrs. New says that the score is low based on the demographics of the area. According to her, 90th percentile is the correct average for the area.

Resolving the Conflict

From administrative point of view, it is fundamental to study the claims of both teachers carefully. For instance, Mrs. Vet makes a valid claim that because she follows every instruction in implementing the curriculum including time requirements, there is no need to change. On the other hand, Mrs. New makes a valid point that the average grade was not in line with the standards for an area of such socio-economic status.  According to Mrs. Vet, she implements a highly structured textbook series for her classes. She implements the text plan using the company-written worksheets, tests and quizzes. She adheres strictly to the prescribed lesson plans, follows the recommended timing of the lessons.

In addition, she implements the systematic, timed, drill and practice activities. The implication is that the problem is not the instructor, but the curriculum in place.  Therefore, a new curriculum should be developed to create a curriculum that is more suited to the needs of the learners. However, looking the number of years of using the curriculum, there is need for a new one. Solving this conflict requires inquiring into the existing curriculum, with a view to developing a new curriculum while explaining to both teachers the decisions taken.

Planning, Designing and implementing the curriculum

The approach to developing the curriculum follows a four-step sequence based on the famous Tyler’s questions including (1) identifying purpose and objectives, (2) defining means of attainment of the objectives, (3) organizing the educational experiences, and (4) evaluating the student outcomes.

1.0 Identification of Instructional Objectives – 1 Week

Identification of objectives should utilize data collected from three areas including subject, students, and society. After identification of the objectives, they should be passed through the philosophy screen and psychology screen to give rise to instructional objectives. These are objectives that are measurable and observable.

2.0 Selection of Learning Experiences – 1 Week

The next procedure involves the selection of experiences that will enable attainment of the objectives. Identification of these experiences will be based on knowledge of human learning and human development.

3.0 Organization of Learning Experiences – 1 Week

The next step involves organizing and sequencing of the learning experiences. They should be organized to enhance learning based on concept, values, ideas, and skills.  These elements will serve as organizers linking content within a specific subject and determining the method of instruction to be used to deliver the content.

4.0 Evaluation- 1 Week

As the final procedure, evaluation is fundamental part of curriculum development process. It is essential for educators to understand whether the identified learning experiences produce the desired result. For instance, if the objective is to enhance critical thinking among students, do the learning experiences selected foster the development of critical thinking skills? Through the evaluation process, it would be possible to determine whether the curriculum was effective or ineffective. 


Wiles, J. & Bond, J. (2004), Supervision: A guide to practice (6thed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. ISBN: 1256641200

An Interview with a Chief Financial Officer

Part 1: Interview

Summary of the Interview

1.0 In brief, specify your job title and describe your educational qualification relevant to the position you hold.

I am the Chief Financial Officer at the Wayne Campus of the University of Phoenix. In relation to my education, I hold a Bachelor’s degree in commerce from the University of Pennsylvania. In addition to that, I hold a master’s degree in Finance from the same university. Also, relevant to my current position, I am a certified financial planner and a certified public accountant.

2.0 In summary, what are your routine activities as a Chief Financial Officer?

First, I supervise the personnel working in the accounts office at the campus. Secondly, I link the Campus with the University’s main financial office and other campuses. This often occurs in the form of meetings and relays of financial information about the campus. Thirdly, I am tasked with enforcing the university policy, with respect to financial management at the campus. Fourth, I am involved in resource allocation planning, a function that is done jointly with the campus administration. There are many other functions

2.0 How does being a financial manager at a major institution impacts on you as a person and a professional?

This environment provides the perfect conditions for learning and professional development. As you know, a university is a place for learning and research. In addition to the routine financial management practices, new methods of management are devised often ensuring continuous improvement. As a person, this management or supervisory position enables me to actualize my objectives and vision as young learner, 10 years ago. I work hard and diligently to ensure that the work satisfies my expectations. The minimum requirement for this position is that you must meet the standard guidelines and objectives of the university.

4.0 In terms of education and experience, what are the requirements for entry into such a magnificent management position?

Just like any other higher-level position, education alone is not sufficient to land a job like this. It is a leadership position that requires both social and technical skills. Of course, one must have a relevant educational background including a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, and relevant professional certification. It is a position that demands a lot from the office holder, and so you must have the essential credentials to prove that you can deliver in this position. In addition to the technical skills, experience is very important. Management and planning require superior ability for leadership and personnel management. Demonstrated skills in those aspects carry weight in securing this kind of position.

5.0 Having said that, how, then, can cope with this kind of barriers to entry into management, regardless of the organization?

Every great story starts with a humble beginning. The first approach is to find out your personal competencies; do you have the skills essential for leadership and management? The next step would be to obtain the necessary education, after which you practice starting a lower-level position. With sufficient experience, opportunities for higher-scale management will come calling, but at the right time. This is what I can call the pathway to management.

Insight into Management from the Interview

 The conversation that I had with the Chief Financial Officer was an experience that shed light on realigning personal objectives with vision. Management is much more than just the technical skills that a person gains in school through studies on various topics. It is a holistic working expectation, where an individual is expected to perform the required activities with a greater perspective of the world. Management is about managing the personnel, resources, and both the environment under which work takes place.

As a minimum requirement, supervisory and management jobs requires educational qualification in relevant areas. Looking at management from the financial perspective, of course, one must have the basic financial education to understand the overall expectations of such an environment. However, a high-level of educational qualification is essential, in order to gain an advantage over potential competitors during the application, interview, and recruitment processes. For this reason, focus should be aimed at fostering academic competencies early on in the life of an aspiring manager. As a person in the early stages of career development, I understand that this is the time to perfect my technical skills. Management is a challenging task that requires great ability to solve enormous problems. In addition to education, management positions require proof of competencies. For this reason, certification by professional bodies is mandatory for any aspiring manager.

In addition to education, a great deal of experience engaging in management-related activities is essential to gain entry into higher-level management. It is not possible to obtain a direct entry into such positions immediately upon graduating from college. First, a person must obtain relevant experience. This may mean begging from a humble position, which in many cases involves utilizing technical skills, purely.  This may appear as unrelated to management, but a person in such a position practices team dynamics, people skills, and communication competency. Slowly, a person gains experience and additional technical capacity through continuous education. With time, and on merit, a person moves up the ladder of management. A crucial lesson to have patience as you work on technical and leadership competencies

Team participation and information management are also very significant in management. Human resources are at the core of management. In addition to steering the organization towards the future, in line with the objectives, the manager is also required to communicate the organization’s vision, mission, and objectives effectively to the lower-level staff. It is vital that the manager has effective people skills. Management is supposed to influence the direction and the general performance of the organization.  For this reason, organizational leaders and supervisors must be able to ensure the acceptance and support of the organization’s strategies by all the stakeholders. Sometimes, this requires changing the culture of an institution and championing the adoption of the organization’s new culture. This requires great communication and people skills. Information management is useful in terms of planning. A manager must be a good planner, and good planning requires effective and efficient information management. This implies that knowledge of information management is essential.

In relation to the holistic nature of the management functions, a student can stand a better chance of success by engaging in meaningful programs involving student mentorship and personal development. For example, one can build their people skills by engaging in activities such as sports and community outreach programs. In addition, one can seek mentorship support from a person already in management. The professional can act as a role model for the student or young professional. Through that, a person is able to keep track of their development because they are pursuing their careers, in line with the expectations.

In brief, and from the perspective of the interview, I can say that management is not limited to the internal environment of the organization. It also involves working with the community in ensuring that the organization’s objectives are in line with the corporate expectations for community development. From the financial officer, I learnt that, in addition to being responsible to the organization, you are also responsible to the community by virtue of being a community citizen. Your role as a leader in an organization is to ensure that the organization’s strategies benefit the organization, but also adds value to life within the community. This is often referred to as corporate social responsibility in the wider corporate world. Therefore, building a platform for leadership involves taking care of education, experience, as well as social competence.

Part 2

Management Journal

Journal Entry 1: Connecting Education to Management

In reference to my current status in education, I am quite comfortable and feel really good.  From the coursework and experience with the instructor, I know that I am in the right career and that my progress is on the right path. I also understand that the best way to have a bright future is to study effectively. I am confident that I am well prepared to become a successful professional, and to become a good manager of community resources. In line with the need for effective communication skills, I participate in class discussions and other interactive forums. In addition, I engage my instructor with questions to boost my confidence. 

Journal Entry 2: Personal Time Management

We all know that time passes fast. In management, efficiency and effectiveness are factors of great importance. Time management is about making efficiency and effectiveness apply to you, as a professional, and your daily routines. How a manager takes control of this basic resource, (time) is very important and is a good indicator of whether a manager succeeds in his function. Indicators of poor time management include lateness in attending meetings, late-minute rushes to meet deadlines, and days moving without any achievement. This degrades performance and must be stopped. From observation of activities related to management, delay of projects and piling of workloads are some of the symptoms associated with improper time management. For a manager, effective personal time management allows him/her to eliminate wastage, prepare for meetings, monitor projects, allocate resources appropriately, plan each day efficiently, and monitor the progress of projects. With proper time management, this can be done with little self-discipline.

Journal Entry 3: Interaction with Colleagues

Most organizations do not run for charity. Tasks must be accomplished to meet objectives. This is the reason why teamwork and interpersonal communication are vital factors. Managers must exhibit exceptional communication and people management skills. In many cases, effective management depends less on technical skills, but heavily on interactions with colleagues and subordinates. The role of managers is to communicate the organizational strategy to the lower-level personnel. The capacity to influence them depends on the manager’s ability to interact and communicate effectively with them. Tales of successful managers such as Richard Branson hinge on the attention that they pay to team work and effective communication.

In relation to personal endeavors in education, the learning environment has been organized such that students engage each other in productive interactions. I am often involved in group projects, discussions, simulations, and other interactive student sessions.  The purpose of this is to sharpen communication skills and people management, which are very fundamental to management careers.  

Journal Entry 4: Making God Decisions

Decision making is an essential factor in management. During my time in high school, I had very good grades and GPA score. However, my ACT/SAT scores were low. This is a setback that I think could have been managed better through good decision making. I should have studied with appropriate decision making, with respect to allocating more time to the areas where my performance was poor. The case is similar with my observation on management. Managers identify opportunities and make quick decisions to take advantage of opportunities to influence organizational performance, in a positive way. In the same way, good decision making ensures that managers respond to threats to prevent adverse effects on the threats on the organization.  In management, there are rules and guidelines to follow in making decisions. However, grey areas require that managers use wisdom to make choices.

Journal Entry 5: The General Organizational Environment

For managers, the ability to manage both the specific and external environment is fundamental. The external environment includes institutions outside of the organization that have the potential to affect the performance of the organization. The specific environment is that, which is relevant to the achievement of the organization’s goals; for example, clients, competitor, suppliers, and investors. The broad aspects of the external environment make up the general environment. These are components including technological, political, economic, socio-cultural, demographic, and global conditions. For example, must be able to manage the performance of the organization, with respect to the potential effects of economic conditions such as inflation and interest rates. Professionals involved in management should take a holistic approach in managing the organization’s environment.

Journal Entry 6: Management and Personal Life

The family is very important for any manager. During interviews, scrutiny is made to explore several attributes of the candidates. In most cases, this includes the candidates’ family values. Therefore, it is essential that a person takes care of their private life, as well. Issues of integrity are fundamental to a successful career in management. The implication of this is that one needs to keep a healthy balance between personal endeavors and work.  Great managers invest a great deal of their time in their families. They engage their families in conversations and activities that make them experience a positive environment of love. Perhaps, it is the peace of mind that managers have at home that makes them excel at work. Without integrity and personal values, a leader can fall to ruin due to mischievous activities such as fraud.  Therefore, aspects of the manager’s personal life can be great indicators of professional potential. In general, management is about the whole rather than specifics. One must attain a working balance between work and private business. In addition, an aspiring manager must work on integrity issues because they can come affect a candidate’s chances of obtaining a management position.


Sunday, 30 March 2014 02:19



Technology has become intertwined with almost all aspects of business.  IT is not only pervasive, but it is also becoming a primary driver of market differentiation, business growth, and profitability.  Some of the top ten IT trends promising transformation of business include personal cloud, strategic big data, mainstream in-memory computing, actionable analytics, enterprise App stores, seamless collaboration, active defense, software-defined networking, data velocity, consumerization of IT.

Cloud computing is no longer an emerging trend. Companies are seeking to create hybrid capabilities that combines the best cloud elements, mixing on-premise and off-premise IT and integrating cloud with legacy systems and traditional software.

Active defense.

Organizations and businesses will seek to adopt cyberdefense to ensure data security, cybersecurity and network security.  

Strategic big data

Business and organization need to focus on non-traditional types of data and external sources of data.  

Enterprise App stores.

The number of mobile app downloads is predicted to skyrocket within the coming years.  Organizations are expected to deliver mobile apps to employees through application store.

Actionable analytics

With the number of cloud, packaged analytics and big data increasing, organizations will need to perform analytics and simulations on every action taken in an organization.  Companies will use SDN  as a vital technology for delivering flexibility and agility, which are vital components in company differentiation.

Software-defined networking.

SDN is a radical new way of looking at network.  It enables IT to unleash the power of virtualization and makes it to migrate to the cloud.

Seamless collaboration.

There is an increase in social networking, which has brought new life into collaboration. It is expected that every new app will be “social,” which will push companies to create new users experience.

Mainstream in-memory computing.

There are expected changes in design and architecture which will boast performance and response time. This will enable real-time self-service business intelligence.

Enabling consumerization of IT

Consumerization has emerged as one of the key trend in business.   Businesses need to maintain information security and compliance, in addition to create plans and, policies.


IT trend. Retrieved from on 13/9/2013.

Top 10 strategic technology trends for 2013. Retrieved from on 13/9/2013.

Accenture technology vision 2013.  Every business is a digital business. Retrieved from on 13/9/2013.

Sunday, 30 March 2014 02:11

Tackling Homelessness From Its Causes

Tackling Homelessness From Its Causes

It is disturbing to see in the street of the world largest economy, hundreds and thousands of homeless people; people who cannot afford the basic of needs of food, shelter clothing, and most importantly, love.  The number of homeless persons in the country has not subsided despite efforts by government, local authorities and charity organizations.  According to HomeAid, 3.5 million Americans, majority of which are children and the elderly, are homeless.  Each day more than 700,000 people in the country are homeless and sleep on the street.   These statistics are shocking considering USA is donating billions of dollars as foreign aid to alleviate poverty in other continents such as Africa and Asian.  It is amazing how everyone tend to remember the homeless during festive seasons and holidays by giving them foods and clothing.  I believe each of us happen to pass by a beggar or street residence as we go our job, yet we do not stop and think what is wrong with all the efforts being by the government and local authority to end this shameful phenomenon of homelessness.  Most of these programs have failed to mitigate the problem of homelessness because they do not address the cause of the problem but offer a temporary solution to a permanent problem. The solution to the problem of homelessness is in understanding the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of the problem.  By understanding characteristics of these people and the cause of homelessness, the concerned authorities can devise effective programs and policies to curb this problem.  

What are the characteristics of the homeless?

It is estimated that 35% of the homeless persons are families with children.  This section of the homeless is one of the rapidly growing sections.  Every day the number of street families continues to swell.  Another shameful statistic indicates that 23% of the homeless are US military veterans.  Noble men and women who served their nation with diligent and patriotism are now sleeping in the cold of the night uncertain where their next meal will come from.   25% of the homeless are children aged below 18 years.  These statistics question the credibility of our children welfare programs.      30% of the homeless are victims of domestic violence while more than 20% suffer from mental illness (National Student Campaign against hunger and Homelessness).   It is important also to consider the distribution of homeless in terms of race and states.  Homelessness is greatest in urban areas with Alaska, California, Nevada, Florida, Colorado, Oregon, Rhodes Island and Washington leading with the highest number of homeless persons.  A report by the Council on Homelessness (2012) indicates that on every night over 50,000 Florida residence sleep on the street or on temporary shelter.  In terms of originality, 39% of the homeless are non-Hispanic, 42% are African-American, 13% are Hispanic 4% are native-American while 2% are Asian (US, conference of Mayors, 2006).   These statistics highlight that the at-risk person include children, veterans, persons with chronic and terminal illness and immigrants.  Therefore, any viable program should focus on these at-risk groups.  

What are the causes of homelessness?

According to Tammy Lee of the University of Florida, the main causes of homelessness can be categorized into lack of affordable housing, lack of adequate income and lack of needed services and treatment.   The coalition for the Homeless outline the causes of homelessness as poverty, declining employment opportunities, declining public assistance and lack of affordable housing.  Therefore, it is clear that homelessness is a social, political and economic problem that can only be approached holistically by targeting its cause.  Homelessness is not just a problem of lack of affordable housing; it is also an indication of a collapse of our public health services that has abandoned the vulnerable in society.  Apart from addressing the high level of unemployment among immigrants and at-risk community, the government and other concerned agencies should be in touch with reality.  They should understand the complex nature of homelessness and ease the procedure involved in placing the homeless in permanent housing.  Most of the home person end spending huge amounts of our budget through health care insurances; they use of a lot of resources are they are housed from one institution to the other; from psychiatric wards, to rehabilitation centers and temporary housing.  

One of the reasons for failure by the department of children and family in most state is lack of connection with the homeless.  They do not understand the psychology and characteristics of the homeless.  Therefore, they end up putting in place lengthy and cumbersome procedures for one to be placed in a permanent house.  For example, most states require a homeless person to be drug-free before being allocated a permanent; such a policy is not viable considering that a good number of street persons area addict and may take long to be rehabilitated. Our social fabrics and values have failed. This is clearly indicated by the number of chronically ill persons and mentally-ill persons in the street.  It is a clear indication that the society continue to stigmatize mentally-person and neglect our elderly and terminally-ill.  It is, therefore, also important for the society to reflect on their moral and assume its responsibility of caring for the sick and elderly.  


Why people are homeless? The national coalition for the homeless. Retrieved from on 30/9/2013.

Tammy Lee (2010). The leading causes of homelessness in the Sunshine State.  Retrieved from on 30/9/2013.

Top causes of homelessness in America.  HomeAid.  Retrieved from on 30/9/2013.

Overview of homelessness in America.  National student campaign against hunger and homelessness. Retrieved from on 30/9/2013.

Sunday, 30 March 2014 02:07

Dream Job

Dream Job 

              In ten years, I will be living in Garden city, New York.  The Garden city is a haven for the wealthy.  It is less than an hour drive from the “Big apple.” It is exclusive and luxurious. The garden is proximal to Franklin Avenue, which is the heart of the revitalized downtown district.  The city is also popular for its social amenities such as good schools, quality hospitals, perfect roads, adequate security and cool atmosphere.  

            I am a chief executive officer of an IT firm.  My job entails being a member of the company boards of Director and serving as the chairperson of the board.  My main responsibilities include drafting the income and expenditures of the company. I also submit proposals and suggestions to the board.  I also involve working in collaboration with departmental heads to draft annual reports of the company.  My daily functions include monitoring the daily operations of the company and supervising the operations of each operational unit.  

            My major will help me climb the career ladder and become a chief executive officer of an IT firm. My major will equip me with the necessary skills and knowledge to thrive in a competitive world.  The skills gained in the course of the study will help me analyze situations and make wise decisions, which will propel me into the top of my career. The major will also equip me with fundamental characters necessary for my success. It will offer me an opportunity not only to learn academic materials, but also a chance to create social bond and networks, which will help me in searching job once I graduate. The pool of students in my class provides me with an opportunity to make lifelong friends and partners who will help in dealing with job related challenges.  The many case studies and practical scenarios in the course will help me gain practical knowledge to apply in the real world.

            I have futurist talents, which help me in to see the future. I can be able to envision the future which helps me with unusual and creative ways of planning and solving problems. The talent enables me to envision what to do when confronted with a problem. It enables me to use structure my problem solving such that each solution is a step to the future. I am also able to plan in line to my vision.  The talent will give me powerful basis for leadership characteristics necessary for my dream job.   My vision will excite my imagination, explore the market and establish a company that will give adequate returns.

             In order to achieve this dream job, I have to take risks so as to gain insights. I will set academic goals to project myself into a successful future.  I have to know and understand what is expected of me in each class and consult academic counselors to stretch my thoughts.  

I have to understand what I am studying instead of memorizing concepts.  Then I have to write a description of my desired future to help me to dream and work toward it. I have to take exams seriously and prepare for them thoroughly and consider them as a step to my future.  I will also have to join and work in groups so that I can perfect my social and leadership skills.

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