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Friday, 28 February 2014 19:34

Significant Event

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Significant Event


              The most significant event was the passing of my grandfather. He died at the age of 86 years when I was 6 days to my 13th birthday. It started on a day he attended a burial for one of his friends who were a member of the veteran group that took part in the Second World War. During the burial ceremony, my grandfather had a stroke that made him rushed to a hospital where he stayed in a life support machine for two weeks. According to the physicians, his brain had stopped working, but the heart was beating fully. My grandfather was an army ranger a man who would stand with his own words. The man loved what he was and would always share that love with all people immediate him. It is with no doubt that I leant a lot of things from my grandfather something that contributes to whom I am. I would ever forget my grandfather simply because he helped my mother raise me for she got me when she was young at the age of 18 years when she was at college.


I would say that the event is completely accurate simply because it happened when I was at the funeral. I was at the funeral committee to help organize on how my friend, relative, and grandfather was to be buried. Due to my age, some of the things that I contributed towards the plan were left out or ignored. Maybe my contributions were left out due to the frantic state that everyone was. Because of my knowledge towards the situation, I am pretty accurate of what I am saying. I can recall everything that happened during the period the flowers that were used on the grave as well as the color that was used for the tombstone. I can show you the location that my grandfather fell when the stroke attack him and even the place where his friend was buried. To my memory and knowledge, I have a pretty accurate of the entire story and accounts of what took place during the period, (Diaz, 2012).


Based on the concept of subjective well being, I would say that I have no problem with what happened although it has developed an impact towards my life. My subjective well being is that I am satisfied and happy with what has happened to my life up to the point I am. Having in mind that my grandfather was someone vital in my life and contributed a lot in my growth, I always admired his life. I have tried to follow his steps and what he always liked in life. I was lucky to join the army where I got a chance to work with the Special Forces. I was discharged from the military activities due to medical conditions although I have no problem having worked with the military for some period. My grandfather taught me a lot of things about the good life and how one should treat his wife. He told me that you should treat your wife like she is the only person in the world simply because she will spend the rest of life with you, (Klein et al., 2013).


In my analysis, I think the role that my grandfather played towards my life and personality is something vital and worth talking. Just like I have mentioned earlier, he taught me all the things that I needed during my growth as well as what I needed thereafter. It is with no doubt that I resemble him for people say that I have the same personality as he did. Based on my military activities, I realized I was someone open like my grandfather who wills to take charge and deploy difference situations when need arise, and that is the reason why I earned my ranks quicker that my colleagues. The death of my grandfather made me realize that not all good things last forever thus I should be strong and face the world in the right direction. I have discovered that I also resemble my grandfather in many ways such as having a huge heart where I take responsibility of helping others when they are in need of help, (Hiroshi, 2012).

The death of my grandfather was something very hard for me to deal with simply because I thought that I would never get the courage to face the world in the real angle. Initially I would engage in all sorts of activities that developed trouble in my life. It was after several situations I realized that I was not acting the way it was supposed. I accepted the death of him, and I guess this is where I made the right decision. I discovered that he had prepared me enough just in case he was no more and that was the greatest challenge of applying what he had always taught me.


Reference:

Diaz, J. (2012). Globalization, Psychology, and Social Issues Research:An Introduction and Conceptual Framework. Journal Of Social Issues68(3), 439-453

Hiroshi, M. (2012). An Introduction to Developmental Psychology as Related to Poverty and Social Exclusion. (English). Japanese Journal Of Developmental Psychology,23(4), 404-414

Klein, W. P., Rothman, A. J., & Cameron, L. D. (2013). Theoretical innovations in social and personality psychology and implications for health: Introduction to special issue. Health Psychology32(5), 457-459. doi:10.1037/a0032386


Thursday, 20 February 2014 11:16

Neuroscientists

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Neuroscientists


            With the advancement of technology, it has made it possible to study the working of the brain internally without just having to cut the skull of a person. Some of the methods that are used in studying the working of the brain include computerized axial tomography. This is a method where thousands of separate X-rays are taken with slight different angles, and then the computer will construct an image of the brain structures through combining the X-rays (Ayers, 2007). This is a useful method in showing the abnormalities in the brain structure like enlargements and swelling. The disadvantage is that it does not provide information regarding the brain activity.


Magnetic resonance imaging is another method which usually produce strong magnetic field where the head of the person is positioned. The radio waves that are directed at the brain normally cause the hydrogen atoms to emit signals that are analyzed by the computer. Details from MRI tend to be superior to CAT scan because it is able to distinguish between the closely related brain structures. Another method is Positron Emission Tomography which normally shows the biochemical activity in the brain at a certain moment in time (Ayers, 2007). The scan normally starts with an injection of radioactive water in the blood stream that makes it way to the brain. A computer will then measure the location of radiation in the brain and determine the more active regions. This is an essential method in providing the picture of the functioning of the brain. The last method is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device which is usually sensitive to tiny changes in the magnetic fields which occur when the neurons fire (Eysenck, 2001). After the neurons fire, they normally create an electric current that give rise to magnetic fields which is interpreted by the SQUID as neural activity. This is a method that helps in pinpointing the location of neural activity.


Reference

Ayers, S (2007). Cambridge handbook of psychology Cambridge University Press

Eysenck, M (2001). Principles of cognitive psychology Psychology Press


Thursday, 20 February 2014 07:30

Howard Hughes Case Study

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 Howard Hughes Case Study


              Personality is a complex set of physiological qualities influencing the characteristics of patterns of behavior of an individual, across different situations, overtime.  Therefore, personality theories were designed to enhance understanding and prediction of the personality traits of an individual.  Perhaps, genetic and environmental factors influence on the personality of an individual.  Genetic factors are the inbuilt factors, which are inherited by the subject individuals from their parents through genes.  Environmental factors are the aspects that individual gains through the social interaction in the habitat. Therefore, both environmental and genetic factors are always considered when analyzing the personality traits of an individual.  This paper is an analysis of how Howard Hughes who was initially known to be “a vibrant man” might have become an eccentric recluse.


 Personal tragedy transformed the life of Howard in 1923, when he was a freshman, and he had never made any decision for himself.  However, a heart attack killed his father a few years after the death of his mother an event, which transformed his personality and dropped out of school at the tender age of nineteen in order to run the family business.  This event can be attributed to the prevailing environment because this turn out of events in Howard’s life happened because of the fact that he lost his parents, and had to find a means of adapting to the current situation.   However, Howard   might have inherited these characteristics from his father who owned a business, and he was also determined to take over his father’s business and even strive to be the richest man in the world.  


Howard was had a passion in dealing with aircrafts an event, which motivated him to design and build airplanes for commercial uses, military, and racing.  In fact, his company manufactured the first spacecraft to land in the moon.  Additionally, as a pilot, Howard broke many aviation records, and even long before that, perhaps, when he was twenty years old, he had already achieved national honors by producing several films, which among them was an Academy Award Winner, and this had been his dream. Similarly, to his father, Howard loved mechanical gadgets   and experience in   his father’s   workshop might have also had a great influence on his moves because  he was allowed to play  with  a great deal of objects, and even created  objects out  of bits of metal and wire.  Therefore, Howard might have inherited his creative from his father who was also dealing with this line of business, and additionally his exposure in his father’s workshop, which is an environmental factor, might have made him develop, or rather sharpen his inbuilt   creative skills (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009). Pertaining to his social traits, Howard had   eyes on a beautiful woman an even, which even made him contract a venereal infection.    Howard might have inherited this trait from his father who also had an eye for beautiful women.   Howard later began to perceive people as objects, which must be avoided. This idea arose from his social experience with many stars, which made him undergo physical suffering (Association for Psychological Science, 2008). Therefore, his desire to spent his time alone and avoid the company of other people might have been induced by his negative experience while dealing with beautiful women. Therefore, both environmental and genetic factors might have influenced Howard Hughes   to change his character.


References

Wiley-Blackwell, (2009). Personality Influences Reproductive  Success. Science Daily. Retrieved From, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090325132149.htm On July 24, 2013.

Association for Psychological Science, (2008). Genes Hold the Key to How Happy we are, Scientists Say. Science Daily. Retrieved From, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/03/080304103308.htm  On July 24, 2013.


Wednesday, 19 February 2014 22:27

Genogram of Personality Traits

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Genogram of Personality Traits


  Introduction

 Personality traits are greatly influenced by genetics.  Therefore, expression of certain behaviors is associated with genes.  This, therefore, means that individuals that share common ancestry or rather of the same family will exhibit certain genetic characteristics.  These characteristics include elements of conflicts, substance abuse, emotional influx, health issues and other characteristics.  A genogram is a diagrammatic representation that is used to display how individuals to display information of an individual, which include age, marital status, behavioral characteristics, and other events that describe an individual.  However, a large number of genetic characteristics influence the way an individual behaves and if this is established it can help solve behaviors such as substance abuse and other behaviors that are demonstrated through a negative personality.  This papers displays how a genogram can be used to trace personality of an individual, and; therefore, assisting in the identification of effective measures that can be applied to control such behaviors.  


    

                High Temperament          

Alcoholism and Genetics

 Perhaps, genetics play a major role in the development of alcoholism behavior in an individual.  This behavior, therefore, can be traced to the ancestors of an individual. In this genogram, the alcoholic behavior of the grand father (red) was passed to his son “father”, and finally to the grandson, who will also projected to pass this trait to other members of her linage.  


Alcohol consumption is a major health and economic problem among many individuals within the family linage. It is estimated that between 2% and 20% of the  in every population are individuals who abuse alcohol, and while there is a single root problem because the etiology of this imbalance is established in genetics and environmental variables, several studies have  established that  genetic endowment can confer increased susceptibility to alcoholism. For example, it is known that some variations in genes encoding enzymes that metabolize alcohol molecule are strongly associated with higher consumption since they cause variation in the rate of metabolism of the same, which can be up to 30 times greater. Therefore, family plays a huge role in alcoholism


 As established many studies that have so far been conducted, the etiology of addiction is due to a disorder of the dopamine system that regulates as this neurotransmitter modulates the brain reward system. Alcohol problems have multiple causes, and the genetic, physiological, psychological and social play an important role. Not all people are equally affected by each cause. For some people who abuse alcohol, psychological traits such as impulsivity, low self esteem and need for approval to drink alcohol cause inappropriately. Some people take to cope or "cure" emotional problems. The social and environmental factors such as peer pressure and the easy availability of alcohol may play key roles. Poverty and physical or sexual abuse increase the likelihood of alcohol dependence.


 Genetic factors make several people to be vulnerable to alcoholism. Contrary to what is believed to be able to drink without being noticed, it means that you are at greater risk, not less, to have problems with alcohol. However, family history of problems with alcohol does not mean that the children of those who have these problems automatically grow and have the same problems, the same way that the absence of problems with alcohol in the family does not necessarily protect children from developing these problems.Once people begin to drink excessively, the problem may persist. Drinking alcohol in excess can cause physiological changes that make drinking more is the only way to prevent discomfort. People with alcohol dependence, however, may need to drink partly so as to reduce or completely avoid withdrawal symptoms.


 Effects of Alcoholism

While it is suggested by some research that small amounts of alcohol can have beneficial cardiovascular effects, there is a general consensus too make take much can cause health problems. In fact, 100,000 individuals living in America have been reported to die from alcohol related issues each year. The short-term effects include memory loss, hangovers and alcohol amnesia. The chronic problems that are associated with alcoholism include stomach disorders, cancer, heart problems, memory loss, brain damage, and severe liver cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers also noticeably increase their chances of dying from car accidents, homicides and suicides. While it is more likely than men to develop alcoholism than women, women's health is more affected even with low levels of alcohol consumption.Alcohol problems are also known to have a negative impact on the mental health of an individual. Alcohol abuse even can worsen existing conditions, for example, depression or, cause new problems like severe memory loss, depression or anxiety.


 Perhaps, alcohol problems not only hurt the drinker. More than half of people in the United States have at least one close relative with a problem drinking. It is more likely that the wives and children of heavy drinkers experience family violence and children face physical and sexual abuse, development of psychological problems, and neglect.  Moreover, it is widely known that alcohol during pregnancy risks of serious harm to the fetus. Friends and family may be killed or injured in accidents and alcohol-related assaults. It is always difficult to notice drinking habits of some individuals.  This is because most of them hide such behaviors or even deny.  The signs of a possible problem include having friends or relatives express concern, getting angry when people criticize you drink too much, feeling guilty about drinking and thinking that you should quit but feel unable to do and / or need a drink in the morning to steady the  nerves or relieve a hangover.


 Some people who have problems with alcohol make a great effort to resolve them, and often, with the support of family and / or friends, can recover on their own. However, those with alcohol dependence often stop taking willpower alone, many require external assistance. They may require medically supervised detoxification to avoid potentially fatal symptoms of withdrawal such as seizures. Once people are stabilized, they may need to solve the psychological problems associated with alcohol consumption.There are several ways available to address the treatment of alcohol problems. However, none is best for all people, but suitable for a given individual.


 Psychologist Help

Psychologists who are trained and experienced to deal with alcohol problems can help in many ways. Before the drinker seeks help, a psychologist can guide the family or others to help increase motivation to change in the drinker.A psychologist can begin with the drinker evaluating the types and degrees of problems experienced. The results of the assessment can provide initial guidance to the drinker about what treatment to look for and help motivate them to undergo treatment. People who have problems with alcohol consumption certainly improve their chances of recovery to seek help early.


  It is important to use one or more types of psychological therapies because psychologists can help people address psychological issues underlying their problems with alcohol. Several of these therapies, include cognitive behavioral therapy that facilitates the development of skills to cope with difficult situations and motivational enhancement therapy (MET by its acronym in English), were developed by psychologists. Additional therapies include therapies, 12-step facilitation attending who have problems with alcohol consumption using self-help programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The three therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy to cope with difficult situations, therapy and motivational enhancement therapy 12-step facilitation, demonstrated its effectiveness through testing of large-scale well-designed. These therapies have been known to help individuals in alcoholism boost their motivation, identify circumstances that induce drinking,  and even learn new ways to cope with high-risk situations that encourage drinking and develop social support systems within their communities .


 Many people who have problems with alcohol have other health problems such as anxiety and severe depression, which occur simultaneously. Psychologists can be of great help to diagnose and treat these psychological problems occurring at the same time they begin to create problems. In addition, alcoholics may receive psychological and professional health treatment that can change their lives.


 Psychologists also provide couples therapy, family and group, which often are useful to repair relationships and long-term success to solve the problems caused by alcohol. Family relationships influence behavior related to alcohol and these relationships often change during the recovery of the person. The psychologist can help the drinker and the partner to explore these complex transitions, help families understand the alcohol problem, learn to supporting families in the recovery process and refer family self-help groups such as Alcoholics.


 Since a person may experience one or more relapses and return to drinking alcohol, it can be important to have health care professional such as a psychologist confidence with which the person can analyze and learn from these events. If the drinker cannot solve his problems with alcohol entirely, a psychologist can help reduce alcohol consumption and minimize problems.Psychologists can also make referrals to self-help groups. Even at the end of formal treatment, many people seek additional support continuing participation in these groups.


  High Temperament and Genetics

 High temperament is also another personal trait that can be influenced by genetics. As observed in the genogram, high temperament was passed from the grandmother, to her daughter “mother” and finally to granddaughter.  This indicates that these personality traits exhibited by the subject individuals are genetic. Therefore, when in order to manage this personality conditions, an individual have to identify the family linage as the root source.


 Conclusion

 Human genetics influence several personality traits.  In an observation of a family linage, there are several traits that are shared. Some of these traits may have adverse effects on the well being of an individual. Elements of conflicts, substance abuse, emotional influx, health issues and some other characteristics are among personality factors that are influenced by genetics.   A genogram is a diagrammatic representation that is used to display how individuals to display information of an individual, which include age, marital status, behavioral characteristics, and other events that describe an individual.  Alcoholism and temperament are the traits that have been highlighted in this paper. Therefore, social supports from psychologist need to be sought always in order to help individuals with these traits. 


 

Wednesday, 19 February 2014 18:36

Physical Senses

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Physical Senses


        The study of physical senses is vital to the psychology field. Our sense enables us to maintain contact with the environment and establish communication with the brain (All Psyche, 2011). Without our physical senses, it would be difficult to make sense of our environment.  The human body comprises five essential physical senses. These physical senses include; smell, taste, touch, sight and hearing. These physical senses help the body to detect stimuli within the environment and communicate the stimuli to the brain thus creating perceptions.


 Some people lose one or more of their physical senses due to injuries or other defects. There have been some arguments that people who lose one their senses tend to develop high sensitive in the other senses so as to compensate for the missing sense. Osborne (2011) is one the personality that supports the argument that people who lose one sense develop acute sensitivity in other senses. Osborne (2011) explains that the human brain is adaptable. According to him, the portion of the brain that control the senses are usually interconnected at birth. As children grow, the connection between the senses begins to separate creating independent sensory center at the brain. When a person develop problem in one of the sense, the other sense occupy the job processing area of the lost sense.


 However, I do not support the argument that people who lose one of their sense compensate for the loss by enhancing other senses. Even the argument by Osborne (2011) does not explain why people who loss one of the senses at adult age tend to perceive other senses better than people with intact senses. Dye (2010) has attempted to demystify this myth. Dye argues that people who lose one of their senses do not enhance the acuteness of other senses. Instead, these people learn how to utilize their sensory information effectively.


Dye (2010) argues that people who lose their senses do not adjust the physiological make up of the remaining senses. The senses of hearing, smell, taste and touch remains the same for a person who has lost his sight. However, this person learns how to utilize the information obtained from these senses effectively. In the past, the person who had become blind relied on the sense of sight in order to locate objects. The blindness forces him to develop alternative ways of locating objects. He learns to use sound in estimating the location and distances of objects.


 Dye (2010) explains that the phenomenon has more to do with learning how to utilize information effectively rather than enhancement of senses. He continues to explain that even a person that has his eyesight can learn how to locate an object when he is blind folded. Dye (2010) refers to an experiment by Rosenblum to explain this point. In this experiment, Rosenblum blindfolded his graduate students who were wearing deadening headphones. She wanted to see whether the students could track an object through their sense of smell like dogs. The students were able to locate the object after a period of time. The absence of sight and hearing motivated the students to develop alternative way of perceiving objects. This compelled the students use information their sense of smell with high efficiency. Dye (2010) explains that student were able to direct the brain neurons to focus on smelling rather that listening and seeing.  


 References

AllPysch.com (2011). Introduction to Sensation and Perception. June 12, 2013. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sensation_perception.html

Dye L. (2010). Overcoming Blindness. June 12, 2013. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/DyeHard/blindness-deafness-senses-compensate-hours-brain-plasticity-key/story?id=10116989#.Ubgq0OfQnxN

Osborne M. (2011). How Does Becoming Blind Affect Other Senses. June 12, 2013. http://www.livestrong.com/article/268986-how-does-becoming-blind-affect-other-senses/

Wednesday, 19 February 2014 18:25

The Human Brain

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The Human Brain


The brain is responsible for coordinating all the body processes (Grobstein, 2013). The brain also controls the cognitive and behavioral functions of an individual. The brain has the capacity of receiving and processing information and making use this information to guide the actions and behavior of an individual. This process is often referred to as learning.One of the facts learnt from the articles is that knowledge and experiences are actively constructed in the brain (Grobstein, 2013). The brain is responsible for memory and learning. People acquire information through various senses and process this information to produce knowledge and experiences. However, the brain does not reproduce the information acquired. On the contrary, the brain constructs new knowledge and experiences by combining the acquired information with preexisting information and paradigm. This implies that persons who are exposed to similar information are bound to construct different experiences and knowledge. This is because, though the new information is similar, the preexisting information and paradigm differs among these individuals.


 Grobstein (2003) views the brain as having inquiry properties.  He argues that the brain scrutinizes acquired information using preexisting knowledge and paradigm in order to construct new knowledge. Information that is in-line with preexisting knowledge and paradigm is assimilated. Information that is inconsistent with preexisting knowledge may be filtered out or may change a person preexisting paradigm. The constructivist property of the brain leads to multiplism of knowledge and reality. Reality can vary because different people interpret it from varying perspectives.


 The second fact that was learnt from the articles is that the social framework is liable for the variability in brain functions and behavior (Grobstein, 2013). Different people exhibit different behaviors and ways of thinking. The articles suggest that this variability originates from the construction property of the brain. The brain constructs knowledge using existing mindsets and paradigm. This knowledge plays a momentous role in the development of people’s behaviors. The mindset determines the accumulation of data within the brain. Inconsistent information is filtered out while consistent information is integrated into the existing knowledge.


 The social context plays a significant role in shaping the mindset on an individual (Grobstein, 2013). The family and the society determine the mindset that a given individual develops. This is because this social setting usually comprise of values and believe systems that inculcated into an individual at an early age. These values and belief systems play a significant role in forming the mindset of an individual. Thus, people from different social context are likely to exhibit varying mind functions and behaviors because they have different mindsets. Their mindsets have been shaped by different cultures and hence the variation in behaviors.


 Mind and body are also closely connected. This fact is elaborated in several articles. Grobstein (2013) argues that the mind and body are interdependent. He argues that suffering and pain originates from the brain thus proving that the body and mind are not independent. Serendip (2000) elaborates the relationship between the mind and the body by examining the concept of Buddhist mediation. This concept seeks to promote physical well being through the meditation process. The concept is based on the view that promoting peace of mind translates to the physical well being of an individual.


 References

Grobstein P. (2008). Diversity and Deviance: A Biological Perspective. June 11, 2013. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/gen_beh/diversity.html

Grobstein P. (2008). Getting it Less Wrong, The Brain’s Way. June 11, 2013. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/~pgrobste/pragmatism.html

Grobstein P. (2008). The Mind-body Problem. June 11, 2013. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/2265

Grobstein P. (2008). The Variability in Brain’s Function and Behavior. June 11, 2013. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/EncyHumBehav.html

Serendip T. (2000). Buddhist Mediation and Personal Construct Psychology. June 11, 2013. http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/Pilou.html


 

Wednesday, 19 February 2014 18:13

Psychological Principles

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Psychological Principles


         There are varied psychological principles. One of the principles that apply to the military profession is identity. Identity refers to elements that denote membership to a particular social group by an individual (Changing Mind, 2013). Identity creates a sense of attachment between an individual and the special group. The identity of a social group is often developed collectively. The identity may also be implicit or explicit.There are many elements that create a sense of identity among military personnel. These elements can be broadly classified as implicit and explicit elements (Hogg, 2001). Explicit elements refer to tangible elements that join military personnel together. The military uniform is one of the explicit elements of identity. The uniform identifies members of the military with the military institution. It creates a sense of attachment between the service men, as well as, between the service men and the military institution. The uniform also grants the personnel a sense of pride and thus increasing the self esteem and confidence of the military personnel.


 There are also a number of implicit identities that bind military personnel together. The military lifestyle is an excellent example of an implicit element of identity (Hogg, 2001). The military promotes a collective lifestyle among its members. New recruits stay together in camp helping them to develop strong bonds and collective thinking. They are grouped into platoons and other units, so as to create collectiveness. With time, the recruits develop a strong sense of attachment to the group. This collective lifestyle is also a vital in providing the military personnel with a sense of identity.The military personnel are also distinctively identified for values such as discipline and respect for authority. The military structure is highly hierarchical. New recruits are trained to carry themselves with a lot of discipline. They are also expected to show unconditional loyalty and respect to their superiors. This is also a vital source of identity among military personnel.


 Stimulation is another psychological principle that is actively applied in the military (Changing Minds, 2013). Stimulation seeks to increase the productivity, alertness and creativity of an individual. Military leaders use various strategies to stimulate their personnel. The leaders stimulate their subordinate through their actions and conversation. The military leaders have to hold regular conversation with their subordinate. In these conversations, the leaders remind their subordinate of why they are in camp. They stimulate the soldiers’ emotion by outlining some of the threats that the country is facing. The conversions also seek to encourage the soldiers and other military personnel. Sometimes the leaders have to commend the soldiers for their courage and sacrifices. Positive comments help to reinforce the soldiers’ confidence and commitment to their duties.


 The military personnel are also stimulated through actions such as training and drills. Training plays a vital role in the development of the military personnel. The training sessions seek to prepare the personnel for conditions that they are likely to encounter during wars. The training sessions also impart knowledge and skills necessary for the military personnel to discharge their duties. The training session also assists in refreshing the personnel’s skills and physical fitness. The training sessions assist the personnel to remain alert at all times. The military also holds regular drills and exercise. These drills seek to create a similar environment that the military would encounter during a war. The drills help to create a high level of alertness among the military personnel. It has become a common practice for the military to move its personnel to different environments during the exercises. This prepares the personnel to operate in any environment when the need arises.


 References

Changing Minds (2013). Psychology Principles. June 11, 2013. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/workplace_design/psychological_principles.htm

Hogg M. (2001). A Social Identity Theory of Leadership. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 5 (3): 184- 200


 

Tuesday, 18 February 2014 23:28

Obesity

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Obesity


 CDC, (2009). Obesity in the United States. MMWR, 58(RR07); 126. Retrieved From, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5807a1.htm  On June 7, 2013.

Approximately two thirds of the American adults and one fifth of the American adults are known to be obese or overweight.  Obesity prevalence among the American adults doubled during 1980 to 2004, and the recent data estimated 33% of the United States adults as overweight. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight among adolescence and children living in the United States was approximated to be 17% in1999 to 2004. Being obese or overweight predisposes an individual to many chronic conditions. However, reversing the America obesity epidemic requires a coordinated and comprehensive approach that applies environmental and policy change in transforming the communities into healthy-lifestyle choices supportive places for all American residents. Several environmental factors contribute to the increasing rates of obesity by preventing or inhibiting active living and eating behaviors. Therefore, recommended strategies and effective measures need to be implemented to assess community initiative effectiveness in physical activity and good nutrition. CDC, therefore, initiated the Measures Project, in order to help communities in this effort.  The objective of this project was to highlight and recommend a list of strategies and the associated measurements that the local government and the community can use in planning and mentoring policy-level and environmental changes to enhance prevention of obesity.  This report describes the process of the panel of experts that was used in identifying the 24 recommended strategies for prevention of obesity and the measurements suggested for each strategy that communities can apply for performance assessment and overtime tracking of process.  


 Harvard Gazette, (2012). Obesity and Diabetes. Harvard Science, Powell Alvin: Author. Retrieved From, http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2012/03/the-big-setup/ On June 7, 2013.

Obesity epidemic and the related health condition; diabetes has been highlighted to have been the target of several studies that are conducted at Harvard and the affiliate institutions and hospitals.  The first study that documented the extraordinary close relationship between the two diseases was among the first seminal findings. Research conducted by Harvard School of Public Health Professor named Walter Willet and his colleagues indeed showed that diabetes risk is increased to approximately five times by even being slightly overweight, and being greatly obese  would increased  such a risk to 60 times. Therefore, the more individuals know about these predisposing factors that more it reduces the epidemics of this health condition. It is, therefore, important to treat weight gain in a conscious manner to avoid health crisis. Physical exercises, lifestyle, and food choice are the important measure that individuals need to consider since they offer long term management strategies.


 NIH, (2013). Balance Food and Activity. Retrieved From, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov//healthy-weight-basics/balance.htm On June 7, 2013.

Energy is considered to another word for calories. Therefore, the energy balance of an individual is the balance of calories that are consumed through eating and drinking as compared to the calories that are burned through physical exercise. “Energy in” is what individual eats, and “energy out” is what an individual burn through physical activity. In fact, an individual burns a number of calories by just digesting food or even breathing in air. A certain amount of energy is also burned by an individual through the daily routine activities. For example, adults do burn by going shopping, walking to the bus stop, or doing other basic activities while students burn calories carrying books, walking to their lockers, and doing other basic activities that are entailed in being a student. An important aspect of maintaining energy balance lies on the amount of “energy out.” This is described by the nature of the physical activity that an individual does. Therefore, people who tend to be more physically active do burn more calories than individuals are physically passive. Calories consumed (energy in) and calories burned (energy out= balanced weight (weight stays the same). However, more “energy in” than “energy out,” over time = gradual weight gain, and more “energy out” than “energy in,” over time= gradual weight lose. It is, therefore, important for an individual’s energy to be balanced; however, this does not happen on a daily basis, but overtime. Therefore, having an overtime balance in energy is beneficial because it helps an individual have a long-term healthy weight. Similar to adults, children need to balanced energy too. However, they are still growing, and their energy needs to be put at par with the increased physiological processes that support growth, but caution must be taken to enhance natural growth that does not promote excess weight gain.  Estimated calorie requirement levels for every age group are normally presented by the calorie requirement chart according to the gender of the subject group, and such levels are based on the estimated energy requirements.  Energy balancing in real life comes in a form that can be indicted as a “life budget.” This is because an individual need to take caution on how to utilize food materials to avoid adverse effects such as obesity. It is, therefore, recommended for people to always keep balance of their calories by eating just exact, or balancing it out through positive and negative compensatory mechanism; when one eats more calories, he/she should plan to compensate by taking less calories in the subsequent meals, and the vice versa is also true.


 Rudd Center, (2013). Theories of Weight Bias. Yale Rudd Center. Retrieved from, http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/what_we_do.aspx?id=205 On June 7, 2013.

Obesity is so pervasive and affects so many people; therefore, it is crucial to understand its nature.  This will be more so beneficial especially in the contemporary world society whereby weight-based bias exists. Weight bias affects several people nearly equal to the number of individuals that are affected by obesity. However, up to date, there is no single theory that has fully explained the reasons for obesity bias or rather weight bias. Perhaps, exclusive explanation would be paramount for the purpose of marking the origin of this negative stereotype, and eventually helping the society reduce this problem. Attribution theory as presented by psychology suggests that people tend to ascribe reasons to obesity while reacting to this health condition. Being significantly overweight is not a good feature because it predisposes an individual to a wide range of health conditions that include diabetes, indigestion, high blood pressure, arthritis, heart disease, and gallstones among other risks. Some factors that cause obesity are beyond human control, for example, genetics. However, other factors can be are within human control. Environment has been known to have an influence on obesity because it influences the nature of physical activities and food that one is exposed to; increased physical activities reduce the ability of an individual to obesity, healthy diet also prevents obesity.  Lifestyle is also another factor that influence the way individuals conduct each and every aspect of living, and it, therefore, dictates social and non-social features of the subject individual.  It highlights the social activities, diet, and psychological orientation of an individual. Therefore, a good understanding of the controllable causes of obesity may leads to identification of behaviors that will prevent obesity, therefore, preventing weight bias.


Wolin, K., & Petrelli J., (2009). Obesity. ABC-CLIO, 2009: Print.

Obesity is one of the most important health problems and has become one of the biggest pandemic of the current century. Off course, it was considered a sign of healthy life in the past due to lack of medical knowledge, but it has since been associated with numerous health problems.  It is so far one of the leading medical threats in the United States and in some other countries of the world.  In America, a significant number of people present clinical symptoms of obesity, and perhaps, a majority is overweight. Infantile obesity has increased to the leading end in the world, and etiology has highlighted genetic factors to play a crucial role. Other factors associated are environment factors, food habits and physical activity. The worst news is that obesity has a relationship with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Obesity in childhood or adolescence is manifested by uniform fat deposits on the trunk and extremities. From the 20 years or so, in males the fat deposits in the abdomen and upper back region, while women predominate in areas accumulations gluteal and proximal portions of the extremities. Hormonal changes in menopause tend to displace the accumulation of fat to the abdominal area, as in man. One of the serious consequences of obesity is the increased cardiac output and blood volume, and produce vascular problems such as arteriosclerosis. Obesity is thus a major risk factor with regard to coronary insufficiency, causing severe disease that can progress to cause death.In obese women observed menstrual period changes: among them, there may be reversible amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility hypertrichosis. There are also other musculoskeletal manifestations, such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, among others. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis of obesity is Paramount. In order to measure the magnitude of obesity, there is a method for determining the weight and health status of the patient is the Body Mass Index,  which consists in calculating the ratio between the weight (kg) and height squared (mxm). According to the BMI, classification may be made and the risk weight that can cause obesity be indicated. Therefore, for diagnosis of obesity to be done, it is always necessary to ascertain the body mass index values according to the NOM so as to enhance effective management of obesity. Perhaps, BMI values that range from18 to 24.9 should be considered normal. However, values ranging from 25 to 27 are considered overweight, and more than 27 are considered obesity. Obesity management includes modification in the food habits, management of the psychological aspects, detection and treatment of the associated diseases and considerable increase in the physical activity. However, when dealing with an extreme case, it is always necessary to use obesity drugs, for example, orlistat or sibutramine and even perform bariatric surgery.  However, appropriate diagnostic and management measures need to be innovated.


 

Tuesday, 18 February 2014 16:55

Combating Ageism

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Combating Ageism


Introduction

Ageism is a terminology created by Robert Butler to refer to a form of discrimination and stereotyping on the basis of age. Ageism is a serious vice that needs to be curtailed. Just like discrimination on the basis of color and gender, ageism involves discrimination against old people. Individuals with ageist tendencies hold the perception that the old people are senile, old fashioned weak and useless. The younger generation views the old generation as different from them hence the tendency to isolate them from society. Ageism is a vice that is prevalent in the society as it manifests itself at the workplace, in communities and health sectors. Individuals in society ignore the reality that aging is a natural process that is inevitable to all mankind. The effects of ageism in the society are severe hence the need to combat it and prevents it continuity. This paper takes a critical view of ageism, its causes, effects and strategies to eliminate the vice. Ageism tendencies encourage mistreatment and unequal treatment thus fuelling discriminative tendencies in society thus it should be eradicated.


 Body

Ageism has been in existence for many decades due to the fact that individuals practice it unconsciously. Unlike other forms of discrimination, where a person intentionally stereotypes another, discrimination based on age occurs in a natural kind of setting. Individuals who discriminate on the basis of age do so without realizing that their action amount to discrimination. For instance, an organization may desire to hire young employees over the old ones. Such a decision may be based on factors such as the demands for the job.


 A company may perceive a specific job to be very demanding hence the need for a young and vibrant employee. By hiring the young employees and leaving out old applicants, the company has indirectly contributed to ageism. Ageism has continued to flourish as it is based on the beliefs and norms that a society follows. A society that believes that old people are less productive will give the older generation few responsibilities compared to the young.The problem of ageism is a global problem that does affect all other countries. Boffey (2011) of the Observer (UK) notes that ageism is also prevalent in Europe. The younger populations of Britons hold the belief that old age leads to unhappiness and causes weakness. These perceptions have led to the British population pitying the elderly and perceiving them as an old, unhappy and weak lot. Segregation of the elderly in Europe is also high with over 70% of the younger population having, no friends who are over 70 years. The old people are discriminated upon and left to spend their lives with their fellow old people in nursing homes (Boffey, 2011).


                 Causes of Ageism in Societies

                According to Assisted Living Federation of America (ALFA) stereotyping on the basis of age has become a serious issue in America. The fact that the number of senior citizens is bound to increase within the next ten years means that ageism will rise to another level. A study by ALFA disclosed that the most predominant form of ageism is prescriptive. Prescriptive ageists prejudice emphasizes on showing how the older generation differs from the younger generation (ALFA, 2012).


 Prescriptive stereotypes hold the belief that the old people have already served their purpose and that they should excuse the young and vibrant population to do their part. This principle is particularly common in the corporate sector in which young employee believe that the older employees should step aside and allow them to enjoy high paying jobs and benefits. Prescriptive stereotypes also believe that the old people should accept their age and not attempt to act younger than they are (ALFA, 2012). The stereotypes also believe that older generations should not use up all essential resources e.g. in the healthcare sector. The three factors contribute significantly to discrimination on the basis of age. Individuals that hold these beliefs strive to execute them hence discriminate the old people. The old people that strive to prove the prescriptive stereotypes wrong are discriminated.


 Effects of Ageism

The effects of ageism are adverse to the victim as well as the society. A society that is deeply entrenched in ageism beliefs passes the beliefs from one generation to another. From a tender age, a child is exposed to negative perceptions of old people. For instance, a child who is raised in an environment that holds the belief that old people are weak and useless will believe the belief to adulthood. He will never seek the assistance of an elderly person due t beliefs entrenched in him from a tender age. Unfortunately, discrimination against the old sidelines the elderly people from playing a vital role of information sharing to the young generations (Dittmann, 2003).


 The old generations have vast experience about work, life and different aspects of human life. Ageist tendencies prevent the young from seeking guidance from the old who, unfortunately, pass on with their knowledge. From a psychological perspective, ageism is detrimental to the well being of the old. A once young person who begins to be discriminated and sidelined due to his age is at risk of depression. Negativity towards old person furnaces the feeling of worthlessness as an individual feels he is of no use to society. Dittmann (2003) attributes shortened life spans to ageism. Negative beliefs and attitudes affect the memory and overall wellness of the old person thus interfering with his health.


 Eradicating Ageism

The first step towards eradicating ageism is accepting that it does exist. Societies should accept that ageism is a social vice that is negatively affecting the growth of society and negatively affecting the social framework of the society. The unconscious aspect of ageism means that the vice will persist in the society. An individual may choose to treat an elderly person different due to concerns for his or her advanced age. Unfortunately, such different treatment can be perceived as discrimination. According to Greengross (2004) treating the elderly population as a different lot in the society is patronizing and can affect an individual’s self esteem.


  One way to eradicate ageism is to perceive age as just a number. As long as a person has the strength and capability to work then he should be given an equal opportunity like the younger generation. The old people in society should be integrated in the society, community activities and workplaces. The old personnel in a company can provide the young employees with training and expertise that they require so as to perform in their posts. Therefore, other than sidelining and discriminating against the old, a society can embrace them and encourage collaboration to enhance societal growth and development.


 Butler (2006) also advocates for the need of societies to eradicate ageism. Eradication of ageism is a matter of fighting for the rights and civil liberties of the elderly. As mentioned earlier, aging is a naturally occurring process that cannot be averted. The young population that remains discriminative against the elderly will eventually get old too and eventually face the same measures of discrimination that will have been passed down generations (Butler, 2006). Human beings have their rights and liberties that persist until they die.  Age should not be the reason why an individual ceases to enjoy life needs such as proper health care, food and housing.


 The media should also play a positive role in eradicating ageism by demonstrating positive attributes of the elderly. In most films, the elderly characters in films are demonstrated as weak dependants who cannot survive without the support of the young generation. Viewers exposed to negative images of the elderly get the impression that the old are unhealthy, financially unstable, sexually inactive and close minded. Such perceptions may have been molded out of a character in a film, but viewers later introduce them to the real world. The media should strive to demonstrate the positive aspect of the older generation (Greengross, 2004). Efforts should be on creating an image of experienced, able bodies and independent persons that the young generation reveres. The society can also help combat ageism by passing law and policies to eliminate discrimination on the basis of age. Such laws are vital in areas such as workplaces and health care facilities where opportunities and health services can be declined on the basis of age.


  From an individual perspective, persons in societies can play a role in combating ageism. First individuals can challenge ageism, by reviewing their attitudes towards people of all ages. An individual should strive to replace negative thoughts and perception with positive thoughts of each age group. Secondly, an individual can fight for the cause of the older people. An old person should not be exposed to low standards of living simply because they are old. Individuals should also strive to questions actions, laws and policies that appear to encourage ageism in a society.


 Conclusion

Ageism is a vice that is as serious as other form of stereotyping and discrimination. Ageism is seen to have worse effects than other forms of discrimination due to the fact that the acts of ageism are hardly obvious to the naked eye. Ageism is insidious, pervasive and involves ignoring the reality that aging is a natural occurrence that cannot be manipulated and changed. Many individuals are unaware of the fact that they are ageism and that most of their actions furnace ageism. There is a need for increased awareness and education on ageism so that populations can be able to detect and prevent the prevalence of the vice. Ageism is detrimental for societal prosperity and also to the overall well being of an elderly person. Aging is inevitable and should not be used as reason to discriminate and deny the elderly their basic rights to enjoy and participate fully in life. It is time for societies to rise above discriminative tendencies towards the elderly. Societies should fight for the elderly by ensuring that existing laws and policies do not work against their favor.


 Reference

ALFA research article. Researchers find three causes to ageism. 2012. http://www.alfa.org/News/3113/Researchers-Find-Three-Causes-to-Ageism

Boffey Daniel. UK among Europe’s worst countries for ageism. The Observer. Sunday 30th October 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/oct/30/ageism-european-social-survey

Curtis, R. (2011). Why our society is ageist. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rhoda-p-curtis/ageist-society_b_911286.html

Dittmann Melissa. Fighting ageism. Vol. 34.5 (2003). Monitor feature

Greengross Sally. Why ageism must be eradicated. BBC News. Tuesday 7th December 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4041713.stm

Robert Butler. Combating ageism in America. Open society institute. 2006

Tuesday, 18 February 2014 16:18

Combating Ageism in Society

WRITTEN_BY Administrator

Combating Ageism in Society


Ageing is an unavoidable aspect of human life. People are born; they mature into vibrant adults before beginning to age gradually. Unfortunately, discrimination on the basis of age is a common social habit that is witnessed in different institutions such as the work place and society.  The practice of stereotyping and discriminating a person on the basis of his or her age is known as ageism. Ageism continues to flourish in the society as it is practiced based on a set of beliefs and norms. For instance, there is a common belief that the older a person becomes, the less productive they are at the workplace. A company that believes such a statement emphasizes on hiring young employees instead of those that are old. Ageism has traditionally been tied to discrimination against the aging population. However, a new breed of ageism that discriminates on the young generation has risen. Ageism to the young generation focuses on aspects of qualification and experienced in which a company may prefer to hire an older, qualified and experience personnel rather than a fresh graduate without experience. The practices of ageism are adverse, and it is the liability of the society as a whole to fight against the vice.


 ALFA research article. Researchers find three causes to ageism. 2012. http://www.alfa.org/News/3113/Researchers-Find-Three-Causes-to-Ageism

This ALFA article presents the findings that demonstrate the factors that furnace ageism in the American society.  Ageism is a stereotypical tendency that is entrenched in the mind of people at a tender age. With maturity, an individual already exposed to age discrimination tendency will practice the discriminations in different sectors. Ageism persists in the society as the younger generation feels that the older generation should step down so that they can access well paying jobs taken by the seniors. Ageism is also furnace by the perception that older people should not pretend to be younger than their actual age. The perception that old people are taking up vital resources such as health care also furnaces ageism ideologies.


 Boffey Daniel. UK among Europe’s worst countries for ageism. The Observer. Sunday 30th October 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/oct/30/ageism-european-social-survey

 Policy editor and observer author Daniel Boffer write the article on the prevalence of ageism in Europe. The author of the article indicates that the elderly populations are pitied rather envied by the younger generations.  There is a widespread perception that age brings weakness and unhappiness thus the tendency to pity the elderly as a weak and unhappy lot. The level of respect for the elderly also diminishes with age. The article relies on the European social survey that revealed that most UK citizens have no friends above the age of 70. The study thus reveals a form of discrimination on the basis of age. The elderly in UK are mostly left to lead their solitary lives with their fellow old peers or alone. The article reveals how ageism is a vice that can be entrenched in the life of other members of a society hence the need to control it.


 Dittmann Melissa. Fighting ageism. Vol. 34.5 (2003). Monitor feature

Dittmann writes a feature on ageism from a psychologist’s angle. The article presents that the American population is yet to fight the vice of ageism. Unfortunately, ageism has several negative consequences. Ageism shortens the lives of the old people due to the negative perceptions. Negative beliefs and attitudes also worsen the memory of the old people. Negativity also enhances the feeling of worthlessness that furnace the occurrence of depression. The article articulates why ageism should be perceived as a vice that requires immediate eradication. There is a need to change the negative perception of old people by minimizing exposure to age stereotyping.


 Greengross Sally. Why ageism must be eradicated. BBC News. Tuesday 7th December 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4041713.stm

            Baroness Sally Greengross analyzes how ageism a waste of talent. The article pinpoints how people unconsciously discriminate against the aged hence complicating preventive measures. In the workplace, for instance, a manager must perform an act of kindness to an older person. However, rather than the act appearing as an act of kindness, it may appear as a sign of discrimination and pity. Treating the elderly population as different is patronizing and can harm their self esteem in the long run. Rather than treating the older generation differently, it is vital to integrate them at the work place, in decision making process and overall community activities. The young generation may be energetic and vibrant. However, they need the expertise and experience that the older generation possesses thus the need to collaborate and work together.


 Robert Butler. Combating ageism in America. Open society institute. 2006

            In this report, Robert Buttler presents the issue of ageism in American and why it is vital to combat the vice. The author argues that combating ageism is a matter of human rights and civil liberties. Ageism contributes to injuries, exploitation and mistreatment thus a violation of human rights. The authors also look at how culture and the media furnaces ageism in societies. The successful eradication of ageism requires that societies fight against the manifestation of the vice in institutions such as the workplace, nursing homes and health care facilities. Laws and policies aimed at ensuring ageism does not persists should also be passed so as to eradicate the vice form the society. This article is vital in the discussion of the topic as it not only looks at the problem but also offer probable solutions.


 

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